Police, digital forensics and the case against encryption

Mark Stokes, head of digital and electronics forensics services at the Met Police, keynote speaker at the (ISC)² EMEA Congress in London on Tuesday, detailed the techniques and technologies used to forensically investigate criminals who, he says, are increasingly reliant on smartphones, cloud services, hard disk drives (HDDs) and solid-state drives (SSDs) to hide their activities or crimes.

This deluge of data is becoming hard to investigate, says Stokes, who cited the increasing number of devices used(terrorists are said to have up to six mobile phones each on average), and this is happening in a digital economy which is already seeing the arrival of 1TB USB thumb drives and new US data centres hosting exabytes or Yottabytes of data…

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File timestamps are used by forensics practitioners as a fundamental artifact. For example, the creation of user files can show traces of user activity, while system files, like configuration and log files, typically reveal when a program was run.

Despite timestamps being ubiquitous, the understanding of their exact meaning is mostly overlooked in favor of fully-automated, correlation-based approaches. Existing work for practitioners aims at understanding Windows and is not directly applicable to Unix-like systems.

In this paper, we review how each layer of the software stack (kernel, file system, libraries, application) influences MACB timestamps on Unix systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, FreeBSD and macOS.

We examine how POSIX specifies the timestamp behavior and propose a framework for automatically profiling OS kernels, user mode libraries and applications, including compliance checks against POSIX.

Our implementation covers four different operating systems, the GIO and Qt library, as well as several user mode applications and is released as open-source.

Based on 187 compliance tests and automated profiling covering common file operations, we found multiple unexpected and non-compliant behaviors, both on common operations and in edge cases.

Furthermore, we provide tables summarizing timestamp behavior aimed to be used by practitioners as a quick-reference.

Learn more: https://dfrws.org/presentation/a-systematic-approach-to-understanding-macb-timestamps-on-unixlike-systems/

YouTube Video UCQajlJPesqmyWJDN52AZI4Q_i0zd7HtluzY

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